The human resources, I.e, the population plays an important role in the economic development of a country. It is the population which provides manpower to exploit the natural resources like lands, forests and mines, manufactures the consumers and capital goods; introduces the new technologies and new lines of production; and sets the dynamic forces in motion. All this means that population or human resources play an important role in the economic development of country. But in so many countries, the human resources are not playing their due role. In certain cases, there is mismatching of human resources, I.e. there are shortages of certain types of manpower as well as surpluses of certain other types of manpower in a country. Then there rises the problem of manpower planning, I.e. to bring an equality between the demand for manpower and supply of manpower.
It is also observed that human resources are prey to a lot of troubles, I.e., they lack power education and training, they are in short of necessary foodings; they do not have proper shelter to live and; they have reduced water supply and water sanitation like facilities. Such all problems badly affect the efficiency of manpower or human resources. Accordingly, a big need is being realized all over the world to make efforts to develop human resources.
Thus, in present context, we will discuss:
- Role of population in economic development
- Manpower planning in Pakistan and;
- Human resources development in Pakistan
Role of population economic development :
As told earlier that it is the population which provides labor force to explore the mys tries of nature as well as utilize the man -made machinery and instruments. If is that the population that creates demand for merchandise and services like homes, clothes, roads, installation, electricity, luxuries, and what not. This suggests that rising population opens the avenues of growth, industrialization and extended markets. But on the other hand, population growth has led to create so many economic and social problems in the world, particularly in the developing countries. This is the reason that the sociologist, economists and ecologists are stressing upon controlling the rising population. After this brief view regarding the role of population, we analyze the matter in detail, I.e whether population plays a positive role in the country or retards economic development.
POSITIVE EFFECTS OF POPULATION GROWTH ONE SOCIO-ECONOMIC SET-UP
- The rising population leads to increase the demand for goods and services. It means to say that in order to meet the increased demand due to rising population the production activities flourish. More goods——the consumer goods as well as capital goods are produced, the employment opportunities are created and ultimately the market is extended due to the operation of investment and employment multipliers. The economies of scale are reaped. The economies of large scale production are accrued and the forward and backward linkage effects emerge. As a result, the momentum of progress starts.
- With the help of increased manpower the natural resources are utilized. As the result oil, gas, iron, coal, bronze, zink, tin, and other deposits are discovered with the help of manpower. The social services like roads, rails, water supply, water sanitation, educational and technical institutes, hospitals, old-age houses, orphan houses, welfare organizations, epidemics and malaria eradication programs, and adult education programs can be initiated with the help of manpower.
- The rising population is of greater importance for the developed countries even. The technological development is resulting in increased production of automobiles, computers, electronic equipment, air crafts and satellites etc. To utilize such all, or to avoid the excess capacity, to rise or maintain the level of full employment the labor shortage should not occur. In other words, the full employment can be maintained, as the’Solow’ suggests, if the labor grows in the same proportion to the growth of capital and growth of output.
NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF POPULATION GROWTH ON SOCIO-ECONOMIC SET-UP
If we analyze the situation which has emerged in developing countries we find that rising population is serving as menace.
It is evident from the subsequent facts.
Whenever the increment surpasses the expansion of output, the per ca pita gross national product won’t increase. If rise in per ca pita is accorded as a yardstick of improved customary of living, then within the on top of case, the quality of living of the lots can come back down.
- The positive effects of growth on growth of output are going to be discovered provided that higher techniques of production are used together with existing resources and men. However just in case of UDCs, there’s shortage of physical additionally as social capital. “So once” the capital is deficient the assembly fails to expand even by using excessive quantity of labor.
- In case of developing countries because of rising population, the increasing number of people are bound to get refuge in agriculture and traditional petty jobs. The economists agree upon it that in such fields the MP of so many labors is zero and negative, and even half of them are withdrawn the production will not come down
- All the higher than discussion reveals that as so much as UDCs square measure involved the negative or adverse effects of growth square measure way more than positive contribution of population