Biotechnology products : Today bacteria, plants and animals are genetically engineered to produce biotechnology products. Organisms that have had a foreign gene inserted into them are called transgenic organisms. The bacteria having a foreign game, into it is called Transgenic bacteria.
Importance of Transgenic Bacteria in health field :
- Bacteria that normally live on plants and encourage the formation of ic crystals have been changes from frost plus minus bacteria.
- Bacterium that normally colonized the roots of corn plants has now been endowed with genes (from another bacterium) that code for an insect toxin. The toxin protects the roots from insects.
- Bacteria can be selected for their ability to degrade a particular substance and then this ability can be enhanced by genetic engineering. For instance, naturally occurring bacteria may be engineered bacteria do an even better job of cleaning up beaches after oil spills.
- Recombinant DNA technology is used used to produce bacteria that reproduce in large vats called bioreaters. If the foreign gene is replicated and actively expressed, a large amount of protein product can be obtained. Biotechnology product made by bacterium, like hypoglycemic agent, human somato tropic hormone, tissue proteolytic enzyme, blood disorder antihemophilic factor, and hepatitis B immunogen square measure currently within the market.
Importance of the Transgenic Bacteria in industry :
- Biofilters : Bacteria can be used as bio filters to prevent airborne chemical pollutants from being vented into the air.
- Remove of sulphur: They can also remove sulphur from coal before it is burned and help to clean up toxic waste dumps. One such strain was given genes that allowed it to clean up levels of toxins that would have killed other strains. Further, these bacteria got “suicide” genes that caused them to self-destructed once the task had been accomplished.
- Synthesis of Organic Chemical : Organic chemicals are often synthesized by having catalysts act on precursor molecules or by using bacteria to carry our the synthesis. Today, it is possible to go on step further and to manipulate the genes that code for these enzymes.
- Production of Phenylalanine : Biochemists, discovered a strain of bacteria that specially good at producing phenylalanin ; an organic chemical needed to make as partame, the dipeptide sweetener better known as Nutrasweet. The isolated, altered and formed a vector for the appropriate genes so that various bacteria could be genetically engineered to produce phenlanine.
- Extracting Metals like Cu, Au and U : Many major mining companies already use bacteria to obtain various metals. Genetic engineering may enhance the ability of bacteria to extract copper, uranium and gold from low grade sources. Some mining companies are testing genetically engineered organisms that have improved bio leaching capabilities.
- Plant having a foreign give inserted into it is called Transgenic plant.
- Importance of Transgenic plants techniques have been developed to introduce foreign genes into immature plant embryos, or into protoplasts having the cell wall removed.
Pest resistance varieties foreign genes transferred to cotton, corn and potato strains have made these plants resistant to pests because their cells now produce an insect toxin. Similarly, soybeans have been made resistant to a common herbicide. Some corn and cotton plants are both pest and herbicide resistant. In 1999 these transgenic crops were planted on more than 70 million acres worldwide and the acreage is expected to triple in about five years. Improvements still to come for are increased protein or starch content and modified oil or amino acid composition.
- Development of Transgenic wheat and rice versions Agribusiness companies also are in the process of developing transgenic versions of wheat and rice in addition to corn. This is considered an absolute necessity if the 2020 global demand for rice, wheat and corn is to be met. World grains harvests have continued to rise since the 1960s when special high-yield hybrid plants were developed during the so called green revolution. But the per capital production has now flattened out because of continued population growth.
The hope is that genetic engineering will allow farmers to surpass the yield barrier in 12 ways :
- The stomata, the pore like openings in the leaves, could be altered to boost carbon dioxide intake or cut down on water loss.
- Another possible goal is to increase the efficiency of the enzymes RuBP, which captures CO2 in most plants.
- More over transgenic plants produce human hormones clotting factors and antibodies, in their seeds.
- Weed production : A weed called mouse-earned cress has been engineered to produced a biodegradable plastic (polyhydroxy butyrate) in cell granules.
- Corn antibody : One type of antibody made by corn can deliver radio isotopes to tumor cells
- Soybean antibody : By soybean can be used as treatment for genital herpes. Plant made antibodies are inexpensive and there is little worry about contamination with pathogens that could infect people. Clinical trials have begun. Animal having a foreign gene inserted into it is Transgenic animals.
- Importance of translucent in animals :
The hormones productions animals using technique types of animal eggs have taken up the gene for bovine growth hormone.
- Production of larger fishes :
The procedure has been used to produced larger fishes, cows, pigs, rabbits and sheep. Genetically engineered fishes are now being kept in ponds that offer no escape to the wild because there is much concern that they will upset or destroy natural ecosystem.
- Gene farming, the use of transgenic farm animals to produce pharmaceuticals is being pursued by a number of firms.